CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS

CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Are we closer to finding Atlantis?





Are we closer to finding Atlantis? New documentary suggests the mythical city WAS real and that large ships docked there in the Bronze Age






  • 'Atlantis Rising' documentary records the search for the Lost City of Atlantis
  • Stone anchors believed to be from Atlantis were found in the Strait of Gibraltar
  • Experts discuss how a site in Southern Spain may have been the city's location
  • But they believe the civilisation could have spread across the Mediterranean
  • Many scholars believe the legendary city wasn't real, but used as an allegory by Plato to hint at how Athenians should live at the time he was writing 
The mystery of the true location of the legendary city of Atlantis, which is said to have been destroyed overnight, has captured our imagination for thousands of years.
Now, the discovery of large stone anchors in the Strait of Gibraltar hints the powerful Bronze Age civilisation described by Plato may have existed.
A new National Geographic documentary called Atlantis Rising charts an epic search for the lost city from Santorini, Greece to the islands of the Azores, comparing theories based on literature about the enigmatic civilisation.

A new documentary by James Cameron has been released to understand more about the mythical city of Atlantis, pictured here as an artist's impression. The documentary looks at archaeological examples of architecture in Santorini, Greece and the islands of the Azores
A new documentary by James Cameron has been released to understand more about the mythical city of Atlantis, pictured here as an artist's impression. The documentary looks at archaeological examples of architecture in Santorini, Greece and the islands of the Azores

THE DOCUMENTARY 

The programme explores multiple locations in its bid to unlock the mystery of Atlantis.
For example, Plato wrote that ships sailed the Atlantic stopping at the Azores and experts touched on the recent discovery of pre-Roman structures on the remote islands that suggest ancient people sailed the vast ocean thousands of years before Columbus, in keeping with the famous tale of the lost city.
The documentary also travels to Donaña National Park in Southern Spain, which was the subject of a previous 'Finding Atlantis' documentary.
The marsh used to be an open bay adjacent to the Pillar of Hercules – the ancient name given to the Strait of Gibraltar - where the anchors were discovered, suggesting it could have one been the site of the lost city.
The programme also includes author Georgeos Diaz-Montexano's idea that some Atlantian refugees fled inland to wat is now Campanario, southern Spain and rock carvings in the area seem to show a record of the epic tale and its drowned port.
Pointing to one of the rock etchings, Mr Diaz-Montexano said: 'You can see around three inscribed boats here with about eight to 12 oars each.'The origins of the myth of Atlantis lies solely with Greek philosopher Plato, who referred to the Bronze Age city in two of his dialogues, 'Temaeus' and the 'Critas', in the fourth century BC.n them, he says the Atlanteans mined gold and silver which they used to decorate temples and walls, while the capital of Atlantis was a port comprised of rings of land and sea.lato suggested the civilisation was destroyed overnight when an earthquake and tsunami struck, destroying the city's important port which was buried beneath mud.
Experts featured in the new documentary, produced by Titanic director James Cameron, draw on Plato's texts in a bid to reveal the lost city's location.
Filmmaker Simcha Jacobovici told IBTimes UK: 'We went back to this source and used the way he describes Atlantis as a treasure map, comparing the city's features with existing places.'
They did not expect to find a complete city, but set out to discover artefacts that had survived the ravages of time and may have been washed into the Atlantic by a mighty wave, thousands of years ago.
The team of scientists and marine archaeologists used advanced navigation techniques and multi spectral imaging to uncover clues about the Lost City of Atlantis, which some scholars believe to be entirely fictional.






James Cameron stars in National Geographic 'Atlantis Rising'


However, Bill Lange, of Woods Hole Oceanic Institution said in the documentary: 'I have no doubt there are vast areas that were once inhabited by people that are now hundreds of feet underwater.'
Professor Richard Freund, University of Hartford, added: 'Plato is writing in a very specific time period, so when he says Atlantis was located at the strait of Gibraltar - he called them the Pillars of Hercules at the time - every single mariner, every single Greek reader, knew exactly where he was talking about.'
Clips of the documentary, which aired on 29 January, show marine archaeologists discovering a large stone anchor in what was the Pillars of Hercules.
The programme explores multiple locations documented in history in its bid to unlock the mystery of Atlantis. Pictured is one of the researchers consulting a hand-drawn map marking possible locations
The programme explores multiple locations documented in history in its bid to unlock the mystery of Atlantis. Pictured is one of the researchers consulting a hand-drawn map marking possible locations
The anchor, which measures 83cm across and has a hole in its centre, could be evidence of docks or breakwaters at the dive site.
Professor Richard Freund of the University of Hartford, said in a clip: 'It's a really amazing find.
'This anchor you can get very excited about. 
'This is a 3,000, 4,000-year old anchor that is massive for a very large boat, which shows us that ancient large boats were sailing into this area 4,000 years ago.'
In fact, the team discovered six of these intriguing artefacts that could date back to the Bronze Age – the largest ancient anchor hoard to be found in the Atlantic near the Strait of Gibraltar.
New documentary suggests the mythical city Atlantis WAS real

Plato wrote that ships sailed the Atlantic stopping at the Azores (pictured). As part of the documentary, James Cameron takes a closer look at the recent discoveries relating to Atlantis made in this region
Plato wrote that ships sailed the Atlantic stopping at the Azores (pictured). As part of the documentary, James Cameron takes a closer look at the recent discoveries relating to Atlantis made in this region
'Atlantis Rising' also divers explore the seas around Santorini and around the islands of the Azores, to compare a range of theories about the enigmatic civilisation
'Atlantis Rising' also divers explore the seas around Santorini and around the islands of the Azores, to compare a range of theories about the enigmatic civilisation
'These anchors could be 3,500 to 4,000 years old and establish a harbour in the Atlantic, where I didn't even dare dream to find anchors,' Mr Jacobovici told Indiewire.
'If we found six on a few dives, there must be thousands out there, confirming Plato's report of a port just past the Pillars of Hercules,' he said in the documentary.
The programme explores multiple locations in its bid to unlock the mystery of Atlantis.
For example, Plato wrote that ships sailed the Atlantic stopping at the Azores and experts touched on the recent discovery of pre-Roman structures on the remote islands that suggest ancient people sailed the vast ocean thousands of years before Columbus, in keeping with the famous tale of the lost city.
The documentary also travels to Donaña National Park in Southern Spain, which was the subject of a previous 'Finding Atlantis' documentary.
The marsh used to be an open bay adjacent to the Pillar of Hercules – the ancient name given to the Strait of Gibraltar - where the anchors were discovered, suggesting it could have one been the site of the lost city.
The researchers did not expect to find a complete city, but set out to discover artefacts that had survived the ravages of time. Pictured is the Azure Window, a limestone natural arch on the Maltese island of Gozo, and one of the sites for exploration by the film makers
The researchers did not expect to find a complete city, but set out to discover artefacts that had survived the ravages of time. Pictured is the Azure Window, a limestone natural arch on the Maltese island of Gozo, and one of the sites for exploration by the film makers
The researchers explored a number of areas, including Santorini, Greece, the Donana National Park and Campanario in Spain, and the Azores islands, marked on this map
The researchers explored a number of areas, including Santorini, Greece, the Donana National Park and Campanario in Spain, and the Azores islands, marked on this map
The programme also includes author Georgeos Diaz-Montexano's idea that some Atlantian refugees fled inland to what is now Campanario, southern Spain and rock carvings in the area seem to show a record of the epic tale and its drowned port.
Pointing to one of the rock etchings, Mr Diaz-Montexano said: 'You can see around three inscribed boats here with about eight to 12 oars each.'
Experts used spectral imaging to take a closer look at the etchings, revealing a horse and boat which could be interpreted to be sinking beneath a wavy line depicting the sea, as well as concentric circles, which were a feature in Plato's description of the lost city.
The team of scientists and marine archaeologists used advanced navigation techniques and multi spectral imaging (pictured) to uncover clues about the Lost City of Atlantis
The team of scientists and marine archaeologists used advanced navigation techniques and multi spectral imaging (pictured) to uncover clues about the Lost City of Atlantis
It has previously been suggested that the present day islands of Santorini or Malta may once have been Atlantis, but neither fits with Plato's description.
Mr Jacobovici told IBTimes UK that while Santorini was destroyed overnight by a volcanic eruption and was home to an advanced Bronze Age civilisation, it is not on the Atlantic side of the strait of Gibraltar, as described by Plato.
While the documentary is not able to pinpoint without doubt the site of the Lost City of Atlantis, it compares archaeological examples of concentric architecture, for example, with Plato's descriptions.
This led the researchers to surmise they may have been a 'mother city' of Atlantis – possibly in southern Spain – but the advanced civilisation spread across the Mediterranean.
'Southern Spain may have been the centre of a civilisation which spread to Malta, Santorini or all the other places we have investigated,' Jacobovici said.
However, artefacts uncovered on land and sea have yet to be examined in the lab to reveal their origins, meaning some scholars who believe the Lost City of Atlantis is an allegory constructed by Plato, may not be convinced. 
Atlantis Rising aired on 29 January on the National Geographic channel.

SEA-GOING SUPERPOWER, OR WAS PLATO PLAYING POLITICS? 

Atlantis was first described by the Greek philosopher Plato more than 2,000 years ago.
While many believe the story is a myth created by Plato to illustrate his theories about politics, others insist it is based on a real historical disaster.
According to Plato's account, written around 360BC, Atlantis was a major sea power located in the Atlantic.
It was larger than ancient Libya and Asia Minor (modern Turkey) put together, and was 'the way to the other islands, and from these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent'.
His account included detailed descriptions of the island - with mountains in the north and along the coast, and a plain in the south.
Its kings were descended from Poseidon - the god of sea - but their divine lineage became diluted as they mixed with mortals.
By around 9600BC the island had conquered much of Western Europe and Africa and enslaved its enemies.
This date would make the city nearly as old as the end of the last Ice Age and pre-dates the earliest recorded city states, found in what is now Iraq, so seems rather unlikely.
After a failed attempt to invade Athens, the entire island sank into the sea 'in a single day and night of misfortune' which may have involved a volcanic eruption.
Over the centuries, scholars have attempted to locate the real Atlantis - believing the account was based on a real ancient superpower.
One of the theories is that Plato was describing the Minoan civilisation on Crete and the neighbouring island of Santorini which was devastated by a massive volcanic eruption around 1600BC, but others believe the islands do not fit Plato’s description of Atlantis’ location.
Some believe the Atlantis myth was inspired by the Black Sea floods of around 5,000BC - an event that may have also generated the flood stories which appeared in the Old Testament.










IN SEARCH FOR THE LOST TESTAMENT OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT




Alexander the Great's last will and testament may have been found 'hiding in plain sight' 2,000 years after his death






  • London-based expert unearthed the his dying wishes in an ancient text
  • 'Alexander Romance' text divulges his plans for the future of his vast empire
  • It reveals his burial wishes and the beneficiaries to his vast fortune and power
  • Military leaders had fought for centuries over who inherited Alexander's land 
The fabled last will and testament of Alexander the Great may have finally been discovered more than 2,000 years after his death.
A London-based expert claims to have unearthed the Macedonian king's dying wishes in an ancient text that has been 'hiding in plain sight' for centuries.
The long-dismissed last will divulges Alexander's plans for the future of the Greek-Persian empire he ruled.
It also reveals his burial wishes and discloses the beneficiaries to his vast fortune and power. 
Scroll down for video 
The fabled last will and testament of Alexander the Great, illustrated above, may have finally been discovered. A London-based expert claims to have unearthed Alexander the Great's dying wishes in an ancient text (pictured) that has been 'hiding in plain sight' for centuries
The fabled last will and testament of Alexander the Great, illustrated above, may have finally been discovered. A London-based expert claims to have unearthed Alexander the Great's dying wishes in an ancient text (pictured) that has been 'hiding in plain sight' for centuries

WHO WAS ALEXANDER THE GREAT? 

Alexander the Great is arguably one of history's most successful military commanders.
Undefeated in battle, he had carved out a vast empire stretching from Macedonia and Greece in Europe, to Persia, Egypt and even parts of northern India by the time of his death aged 32.
Only five barely intact accounts of his death at Babylon in 323 BCE survive to the present day.
None are from eyewitnesses and all conflict to varying degrees.
According to one account from the Roman era, Alexander died leaving his kingdom 'to the strongest' or 'most worthy' of his generals.
In another version, he died speechless in a coma, without making any plans for succession. New research suggests this is false based on the fact Evidence for the lost will can be found in an ancient manuscript known as the 'Alexander Romance', a book of fables covering Alexander's mythical exploits.
Likely compiled during the century after Alexander's death, the fables contain invaluable historical fragments about Alexander's campaigns in the Persian Empire.
Historians have long believed that the last chapter of the Romance housed a political pamphlet that contained Alexander's will, but until now have dismissed it as a work of early fiction.
But a ten-year research project undertaken by Alexander expert David Grant suggests otherwise.
The comprehensive study concludes that the will was based upon the genuine article, though it was skewed for political effect. 
The revelation is detailed in Mr Grant's new book, 'In Search of the Lost Testament of Alexander the Great.'
He believes that Alexander's original will was suppressed by his most powerful generals, because it named his then unborn half-Asian son Alexander IV and elder son Heracles as his successors.
Rather than accepting the leadership of what the Macedonians saw as 'half-breed' sons, which would have been 'unthinkable', they fought each other for power in a bloody period of infighting and civil war known as the 'Successor Wars'.
The long-dismissed last will and testament divulges Alexander's (pictured) plans for the future of the Greek-Persian empire he ruled
The long-dismissed last will and testament divulges Alexander's (pictured) plans for the future of the Greek-Persian empire he ruled

WHY WAS THE WILL HIDDEN?

London-based Alexander expert David Grant believes that Alexander's original will was suppressed by his most powerful generals, because it named his then unborn half-Asian son Alexander IV and elder son Heracles as his successors.
Rather than accepting the leadership of what the Macedonians saw as 'half-breed' sons, which would have been 'unthinkable', they fought each other for power in a bloody period of infighting and civil war known as the 'Successor Wars'. 
It was in the decades following Alexander's death that Mr Grant now believes the original will was secretly rewritten and distributed in leaflet form by one of the competing generals to 'prove' the legitimacy of his own inheritance, as well as to damn the generals opposing him. 
As well as naming Alexander's chosen successors the leaflet contains detail of a conspiracy among his generals to poison Alexander.
Instead of being satisfied with the regions of the empire Alexander allotted to each of them to govern on behalf of his sons, they fought bitterly to control the whole empire.
Mr Grant said: 'The surviving texts make it quite clear that none of the generals with Alexander at Babylon would have accepted their authority being subordinated to a son bred from a race they had conquered.
'The suppression of the will, and the claims that Alexander either died silent with no instructions, or he died encouraging his generals to slug it out for control of the empire with the famous words 'to the strongest', legitimized their own actions, aggressions and alliances in the years after Alexander's death.'It was in the decades following Alexander's death that Mr Grant now believes the original will was secretly rewritten and distributed in leaflet form by one of the competing generals to 'prove' the legitimacy of his own inheritance, as well as to damn the generals opposing him.
If Mr Grant is correct his finding overturns 2,000 years of academic study on the issue.
The researcher came to the conclusion after studying various ancient texts about the leader over 10-year period.
'The propaganda and political slant of the pamphlet cast serious doubts on the authenticity of the will, which at some point was absorbed by a developing book of fables we know today as Greek Alexander Romance,' he said.

In Search of the Lost Testament of Alexander The Great

'Once it entered the Romance, its fate was relegated from truth to fairy tale.
'Yet my research brings me to the overwhelming conclusion that, though adulterated, this is based on an original last testament of Alexander the Great, and it was one of the most influential military and political mandates in the ancient world.'
As well as naming Alexander's chosen successors the leaflet contains detail of a conspiracy among his generals to poison Alexander.
Instead of being satisfied with the regions of the empire Alexander allotted to each of them to govern on behalf of his sons, they fought bitterly to control the whole empire.
Mr Grant said: 'The surviving texts make it quite clear that none of the generals with Alexander at Babylon would have accepted their authority being subordinated to a son bred from a race they had conquered.
Alexander the Great (pictured) is arguably one of history's most successful military commanders. Undefeated in battle, he had carved out a vast empire stretching from Macedonia and Greece in Europe, to Persia, Egypt and even parts of northern India 
Alexander the Great (pictured) is arguably one of history's most successful military commanders. Undefeated in battle, he had carved out a vast empire stretching from Macedonia and Greece in Europe, to Persia, Egypt and even parts of northern India 
'The suppression of the will, and the claims that Alexander either died silent with no instructions, or he died encouraging his generals to slug it out for control of the empire with the famous words 'to the strongest', legitimized their own actions, aggressions and alliances in the years after Alexander's death.'
Alexander the Great is arguably one of history's most successful military commanders.
Undefeated in battle, he had carved out a vast empire stretching from Macedonia and Greece in Europe, to Persia, Egypt and even parts of northern India by the time of his death aged 32.
Only five barely intact accounts of his death at Babylon in 323 BCE survive to the present day. 
None are from eyewitnesses and all conflict to varying degrees.
London-based Alexander expert David Grant's (pictured) research has spanned ten years and tens of thousands of hours considering 'every conceivable avenue of investigation' in order to put the record straight on Alexander's will once and for all
London-based Alexander expert David Grant's (pictured) research has spanned ten years and tens of thousands of hours considering 'every conceivable avenue of investigation' in order to put the record straight on Alexander's will once and for all
According to one account from the Roman era, Alexander died leaving his kingdom 'to the strongest' or 'most worthy' of his generals.
In another version, he died speechless in a coma, without making any plans for succession.
Based on these testimonies, historians have ignored the will in the final pages of Romance.
But Mr Grant, a classics graduate, considered the hypothesis to be 'highly suspect' given Alexander's attention to detail and the power-hungry nature of his generals. 
He said: 'It is clear that the testament was most likely issued, as per the academic consensus, by one of the competing generals to win support over their rivals.
'Even so, there is a very basic logic that seems to have been consistently overlooked: recirculating a will that had never existed would have been dangerous and self-defeating for any one of proposed authors of the pamphlet, all high-ranking generals.
'It was only by calling upon the authority of the actual last will and testament that the author of the political pamphlet could ever hope to stake a claim to power.' 
'In Search of the Lost Testament' is set for release later this week.
Mr Grant has written a book exploring the mythical leader's final demands before his death over 2,000 years ago and the resulting skirmish between Alexander's many military leaders
Mr Grant has written a book exploring the mythical leader's final demands before his death over 2,000 years ago and the resulting skirmish between Alexander's many military leaders